Borregaard operates the world's most advanced biorefinery. By using natural, sustainable raw materials, Borregaard produces advanced and environmentally friendly biochemicals and biomaterials that replace oil-based products. The Borregaard Group has 1080 employees in 16 countries. Borregaardscontribution to Mistra TerraClean will be as a supply of MFC/NFC material for research and testing, as well as supply of other cellulose or lignin qualities. In the Mistra TerraClean Consortium, Borregaard represents the cellulose and pulping industry.
MoRe Research Örnsköldsvik AB is a neutral and independent research and development company in the field of products and processes for e.g. the forest industry. Our focus areas are analytical services, Biorefinery, Process Emergency and Education. MoRe will contribute in the pilot-scale production of flat sheets based on fibrous materials, such as modified cellulose fibers/nanofibers.MoRe is also involved in case study C addressing capture of metals, nitrogen and potassium from pulping effects. In the Mistra TerraClean Consortium MoRe represents the cellulose and pulping industry.
Boliden is a leading metals company with a commitment to sustainable development. The company's core competence is within the fields of exploration, mining, smelting and metals recycling. Boliden will contribute in WP 2 and WP 3, providing the project with samples containing metals, and nitrogen compounds from its mining operations for testing and development of prototypes for upscaling. Boliden has a commitment to being on the leading edge of water treatment and metals recycling, and therefore has an interest in the development of water treatment technologies using renewable materials. Boliden will also host a pilot project under WP3.
Vattenfall is Europe's largest producers of electricity. When it comes to electricity and heat, Vattenfall is active in all parts of the value chain: production, distribution and sales. As regards gas comprises Vattenfall's operations in sales. In addition, we conduct energy trade. Vattenfall generates electricity and heat from six types of energy: wind, nuclear, natural gas, biomass, coal and hydropower. Vattenfall is contributing to the Mistra TerraClean program to support the development of smart materials applied for reducing the emissions from bio-energy conversion processes. In the Mistra TerraClean consortium, Vattenfall represents the energy sector.
Develops and produces a nanoporous silica based material, Quartzene, which is used for filtration, insulation and coatings. The company sells Quartzene on the market through a combination of direct sales and, in the future, under license. Svenska Aerogel was founded in year 2000 to explore ways of commercializing innovations in filter material developed through research by KTH and the University of Gävle (Sweden). In 2010 the commercialization started and in 2013, Svenska Aerogel set up its own production facility in Gävle. And has attracted a combined total of €4.0 million through shareholders' equity, debt and government grants since its inception. The company is now seeking capital up to €3.5 million to ramp up the production capacity to be able to manufacture 450 tons per year in order to meet fast sales order growth. The customer base has grown rapidly.
Svenskt Vatten is a trade association for Swedish water and wastewater utilities (all municipal water utilities in Sweden are members). The relevant areas of interest for Svenskt Vatten will be 1) development of barriers for chemical pollutants such as heavy metals, uranium, petroleum products, algal toxins, pesticides and drug residues and resource-efficient reduction of pathogens (protozoa, bacteria and virus) and the methods to assess the effectiveness of the barriers, 2) development of more effective treatment technology, such as membrane technology, or reduction of organic matter (for drinking water), and 3) develop cost-effective treatment methods (at wastewater treatment plants) for the removal of nitrogen, pathogens, pharmaceutical residues and endocrine disruptors from wastewater. Svenskt Vatten will support the program by 1) helping to connect relevant research to existing research programs/clusters and/or water utilities 2) co-funding (to be applied at svensktvatten.se) 3) dissemination of results.
Biokol AB is a research intense SME that is localized in Stockholm and Norrsundet. BK focuses on transforming waste biomass into highly performing products, and provides opportunities to work with their proprietary carbons. Its extensive knowledge in hydrothermal carbonization of biomass is integrated in the tasks of WP1. Biokol expects to learn more about their carbons and ultimately expand their product portfolio when it comes to hydrothermal carbonized biomass and its refined variations. Of particular interest is their use in water purification.
NZ is a research intense spinout company from SU that develops, builds and sells biogas-upgrading equipment targeting small-scale producers. It has a strong interest in research and development of novel porous materials for its processes. NZ's interest is in porous sorbents for biogas upgrading is integrated in tasks of WP1 and WP2. The company seeks novel and modified structured porous materials for swing adsorption applications exhibiting high performance, low methane slip with economic advantages. NZ has equipment for granulation of powders and several swing adsorption units.
Disruptive Materials is a spin-out company from the Ångström Laboratory at Uppsala University. They specialize in new advanced materials with both scientifically verified extraordinary properties and great market potential. The initial focus of the company is to commercialize the world-record breaking material Upsalite®.
Akzo Nobel Decorative Paints belongs to the multinational chemistry and paints company AkzoNobel. AkzoNobel Decorative Paints is, within the framework of Mistra TerraClean, particularly interested in remediation of flue gases, VOCs, zeolites and photocatalysis, specifically with reference to improvement of air quality from decorative paints that utilize Mistra TerraClean technology. Key target pollutants include: Aromatics such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, NOx, Sox, and CO. Key contact persons: Richard Barcock, Phil Taylor and Zoe Button.
Dutta and co-workers have close to two decades of experience in the material synthesis, modification and device fabrication for the treatment of contaminants and deionization of water. The Functional Materials Division at KTH has experience in the synthesis and physico-chemical characterization, generation, modification and characterization of various classes of custom designed functionalization and activated carbon based super-capacitors for water treatment. The core-competence of the Division is in its ability to design and fabricate nanostructured materials tailored for specific applications using combinatorial chemical strategies. From the outset, FNM strategy focuses on R&D that has the potential to be transformed into application with our research activities directed in two themes namely 'Planetcare' and 'Healthcare'. Our efforts in the Planetcare theme for air and water treatment englobes extensive experience in surface functionalization and enhanced adsorption/desorption processes. The feasibility of visible light photocatalysis and capacitive deionization systems as prototypes (at a technical readiness level of 3), generating the corresponding proof of concept, has been already performed through previously funded EU and national and international projects e.g. SOWAEUMED, EULA-NETCERMAT, and NANOREMOVAS, CoEN, TRC-Chair etc. Visible light photocatalysis and Capacitive deionization (CDI) has been an active area of research of the PI for over a decade. During this process, 4 PhD's and 6 master's thesis were completed.
Edlund and associates developed a range of pathways for the functionalization of polymer surfaces and biopolymers, especially polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and alginates. Functional and stimuli-responsive hydrogels, based on hemicelluloses and can be made highly swelling, magnetic (Zhao et al 2015), electrically conductive (Zhao et al 2014) or pH-responsive. Softwood hemicellulose, O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan was used as a component in hydrogels with good adsorption capacity of heavy metal ions, including Cd2+, Ni2+, As5+, and Cr6+ (Ferarri et al 2015). A pathway for covalent surface modification of polymers in a non-destructive fashion under absolutely solvent-free conditions has also been invented (Edlund et al 2005). This is useful for the post-functionalization of surfaces to immobilize sensoring agents, adsorbents, and stimuli-responsive groups. Pathways are also developed to chemically modify CNFs (cellulose nanofibrils) with green chemistry and water based media to enable its dispersion in a composite matrix with sufficient fiber-matrix compatibility and to functionalize the macromolecules with specific dyes to make a bio-marker sensor molecule (Navarro et al 2016).
Wågberg and co-workers have recently shown that CNFs can be self-organized, freeze-linked, into wet-stable porous structures into a variety of shapes and porosities (Erlandsson et al 2016) and also into wet-stable foams using the Pickering foam technique with chemically modified CNFs (Tchang Cervin et al 2016). The formation of a wet stability/integrity is an achievement as such since cellulose is by nature hydrophilic and the material properties and integrity is strongly affected by the presence of water. These materials have also been modified by using a rapid surface tailoring where the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology was performed with a filtering treatment in which the anionic CNFs were modified with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and/or nanoparticles to create conducting, light interactive or antibacterial materials (Hamedi et al 2013; Henschen et al 2016). Pore size determinations showed that the majorities of the pores in the foams/aerogels have diameters from 5 μm up to 200 μm while still having a specific surface area greater than 40 m2/g, meaning that a considerable amount of the CNFs are available in a non-aggregated form. This is very important when applying these materials in filtering, adsorption and absorption applications. Recent investigations have also shown that surface modified porous CNF materials can be used for separating oil and water simply by a hydrophobic modification (Tchang Cervin et al 2012), showing that a surface tailoring of these materials constitutes a totally new way of preparing separation and filtration materials.
In 2013 researchers led by Strømme at Uppsala University synthesized a stable amorphous porous magnesium material which has been commercialized by the Swedish SME Disruptive Materials AB as Upsalite® (Forsgren et al 2013). This magnesium carbonate rich material is highly porous with narrow pore size distributions and a specific surface area higher than any reported carbonates in the literature. The material also shows extraordinary water uptake. It has recently been found have a highly tunable pore structure and surface area: The specific surface area can be adjusted from ~150 to ~800 m2/g and the pore size can be tuned from 2 to ~20 nm without the use of any environmentally harmful structure directing agents/ templates/ swelling agents (Cheung et al 2016). The internal and external surface of these magnesium carbonates can also be modified post synthetically using techniques such as amine grafting and chemical depositions. These unique properties make these carbonates very interesting candidates for a range of different applications that include separation of CO2 from flue gas, biogas and filters that can be used for air quality control.
The EU FP7 program NanoSelect (Functional membranes/ filters with anti/low-fouling surfaces for water purification through selective adsorption on bio-based nanocrystals and fibrils, 2012-2016; www.nanoselect.eu) lead by Swedish researchers successfully developed the first generation of fully bio-based membranes taking advantage of the surface functionality and surface adsorption of nanocellulose/ nanochitin isolated from bio-residues and its surface modified versions with sulphate, carboxyl, phosphoryl or quaternary ammonium groups. The NanoSelect consortium has in the recent years developed significant know how on the use of bio-based nanoparticles as adsorbents for removal of contaminants from water (Liu et al 2015; Karim et al 2014; Karim et al 2016a; Karim et al 2016b; Zhu et al 2015) or as functional layers on membranes with improved fouling resistance (Goetz et al 2016; Liu et al 2016). Lab scale validation and demonstrations using spiral wound modules within the NanoSelect consortium showed the potential use of bio-based nanoparticles as functional layers that simultaneously provide adsorption and size exclusion. Mathew and co-workers also developed a new generation of ultrafiltration membranes including biocidal functionalization (ERANET SUSFOOD, CEREAL (2014-2017), with the aim of limiting biofouling and controlling the level of pathogens in process water via electrospinning where bio-based nanocrystals are used as functional anti-fouling (Goetz et al 2016). The results showed a significant increase in hydrophilicity (decrease in contact angle), a decreased tendency for biofilm formation and high flux, which confirmed the concepts within the NanoSelect program.
To produce carbon-based components from renewable sources and preferably from waste biomass is important for the future. It is within the context of producing carbon-based components from renewable sources and from waste biomass that Hedin's group and Biokol have worked together since 2009 on deriving various activated carbons from waste biomass using a two-step procedure. (Lee et al 2016; Hao et al 2014a; Hao et al 2014b) In the Mistra TerraClean Program, the scope for hydrochars and associated ACs is extended within case studies in WP3. The possibilities for waste biomass derived carbon materials with applications in water treatment, metal and phosphate recovery, and potentially pharmaceuticals and their decomposition products will be researched.
Upgraded biogas (bio-methane) is an excellent fuel for vehicles and key resource in the transition to a sustainable energy system. The raw biogas from anaerobic digestion consists of methane (CH4) and CO2, besides small amounts of impurities (such as H2S etc), and the upgrading removes mainly the CO2. Several technologies are commercially available for the separation of CO2 from CH4 in upgrading of biogas to bio-methane. (Sun et al 2015) Adsorption-driven separation by the use of nanostructured adsorbents appear to be down scalable to flows < 250 Nm3/g relevant for small scale biogas upgrading plants. (Grande 2011) Hedin's group and NeoZeo AB have been working since 2010 in exploring zeolites and silicoaluminophosphates for the use in small-scale upgrading. (Bacsik et al 2016) Here, these efforts would be expanded with synthesis and processing of zeolite-type sorbents. It would also be relevant to study the prospect for the highly porous magnesium carbonates and certain activated carbons derived from hydrochars in biogas upgrading. NeoZeo AB will open up their pressure-swing adsorption devices their facility for structuring adsorbent powder into pellets to accommodate Mistra TerraClean program research.
Swetox is a unique collaboration between eleven Swedish universities, with strong international relationships and collaborations. Swetox conducts innovative, interdisciplinary, fundamental research, applied research and commissioned research, as well as developing new and coordinating existing educational activities and facilitating science to policy efforts in the area. The principal investigator Cotgreave is professor of toxicology at KI, and director of Strategic Scientific Development at Swetox. Cotgreave has over 30 years of experience of toxicological research and its application to human health risk assessment, latterly from the pharmaceutical industry with AstraZeneca. Activities have ranged from fundamental research on mechanisms of toxicity, to practical hazard, exposure and risk assessment analyses, including "weight of evidence" and "read-across" approaches, and regulatory authority interactions. In addition to regulatory requirements in the medicinal sector, more recent interactions within large EU framework projects (SEURAT-1, EuToxRisk) on non-animal based risk assessment methods, have expanded experience into the realms of the chemical industry and its interactions with ECHA and WHO. This includes the area of safety of nano-materials. Associated investigator Nilsson has over 20 years of experience from academia and the pharmaceutical industry (AstraZeneca) in the area of mechanisms of toxicity and human health risk assessment of new chemical entities, including compilation of regulatory submissions. Both PIs will provide input into case study design and carry-through, providing support to quantitative assessment of reductions in toxicological risks to human health, as well as risk assessments of novel materials generated by the program. With over 30 years of experience in ecotoxicology, Norrgren at SLU provides a wealth of experience and knowledge directed at environmental impact assessment of chemical exposure on aquatic ecosystems and wild-life species (Ulhaq et al 2013a and 2013b), which will be relevant both to case study design and performance, as well as environmental risk assessment of novel materials generated in the program. Associated investigator Lindberg is trained as an analytical chemist at Stockholm University, and has over 25 years of experience in the development of bio-analytical techniques for the determination of chemicals, their metabolites and endogenous molecules (metabolites and proteins: Metabonomics), both in academia and industry (Pharmacia and AstraZeneca). (Tengstrand et al 2014; Alm et al 2012). Associated investigator Mucs brings considerable expertise to both the case studies and risks assessments within a variety of areas Development and application of computational and modelling approaches including quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling (multiple species, dosing routes) for in vivo exposure predictions, ligand and receptor based design (molecular docking, pharmacophore modelling, quantum mechanics), pattern recognition and statistics, in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) (Mucs et al 2013).
The former institutes SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Innventia, and Acreo Swedish ICT have now merged into one institute, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, in order to become a stronger research and innovation partner for businesses and society. They will remain individual legal entities throughout 2017 and hence enter the Mistra TerraClean program and sign the consortium agreement as individual partners.
RISE Bioeconomy is a world leader in research and development relating to pulp, papermaking and biorefining. A dominant part of the work is done together with the industry, driven by industry partners that are clustered together around a common problem such as water, energy and resource efficiency. RISE Bioeconomy operates lab to pilot scale biorefinery and papermaking facilities in the FEX environment which is a platform for development and exchange of knowledge and technologies within wood based refinement and papermaking.
Several large industry cluster projects headed by Ålander and co-workers have dealt with the production and upscaling of different generations of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) for various end-use purposes, primarily for large scale applications such as papermaking wet-end additives, coatings and films. A pilot plant CNF facility was erected at RISE Bioeconomy 2010. Primary activities have been fiber choice and enzymatic/chemical modification of fiber precursors for energy efficient delamination, rheological features and the applied use of CNF in papermaking. RISE Bioeconomy has developed several different generations of CNF, such as oxidized, carboxymethylated, sulfonated and phosphorylated materials and filed several important patents in the area (Ankerfors et al 2009, Lindström et al 2007). Granberg and co-workers have invented a range of different stimuli-responsive materials based on paper making technology, such as temperature, moisture, and electrically controlled paper muscles (Granberg et al 2010). New advances within the research area cellulose electronics, obtained from the Power Papers and Modulit projects, have shown that functionalized CNF, in the form of aerogels and films, can be used to conduct electricity into porous structures (Erlandsson et al 2016), rectifying ultra-high radio frequency signals to harvest energy at a distance (Sani et al 2016), and to sense the local pressure (Ullah et al 2016). Of special interest is the invention of technology to freeze-link nanocellulose into particles and structures with tailored porosity and shape (Granberg et al 2016). This allows for wet stable porous filters that can later be chemically modified to obtain interactive properties. Recent work also includes the first known pilot scale manufacturing (100m/min) of functional ZnO tetrapodal composite paper (Granberg et al 2015). Yet unpublished work indicates that these papers may be used as photocatalytic filters.
RISE ICT and the division RISE Acreo (former Acreo Swedish ICT) is specialized within hardware oriented ICT (Information and Communication Technology). Printed Electronics is one of RISE ICT's areas of expertise and the printed electronics department at RISE ICT is a world leading actor in the fields of printed and organic electronics and especially paper electronics. RISE ICT is primarily focusing on four applications in the field of printed electronics: internet of things, packaging, health care and construction. The pilot-plant, PEA Manufacturing, is the major test environment for the production of Printed Electronics in Sweden. At PEA-M we develop prototypes and carry out small scale production with the purpose to bridge the gap between research and the volume manufacturing of new products. PEA-M was recently designated European "Pilot line Demonstrator" - an example of a successful test environment for the development of prototypes as well as production.
Sandberg and associates at RISE ICT develop functional printing and coating inks for electrochemical devices and sensors and also work on scaling up ink production to pilot scale. This has resulted in several inventions and patents (Sandberg et al 2015). Another direction of research is the development of paper machine produced ZnO - cellulose composite paper (Granberg et al 2015). Low cost sensors have been manufactured from this material and photocatalytic activity has been demonstrated. Norin is responsible for materials research activities in R&D and production at RISE ICT Fiberlab, which is a state-of-the-art optical fiber manufacturing unit within the fiber optics department of RISE ICT. This group runs a daily production of specialty optical fibers for a range of customers with industrial and medical applications. Norin's expertise in glass chemistry and inorganic chemistry in general, has paved the way to many novel fiber types such as fibers coated with nanocrystalline carbon or fibers with gold-nanoparticles in the glass, both being interesting candidates for sensing applications.
RISE Bioscience and Materials
RISE Biosciense and Materials (former SP, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces) has a long tradition in colloidal syntheses of nanomaterials. RISE Bioscience and Materials is well equipped when it comes to characterization of suspension properties (viscosity, surface tension, surface charge, sedimentation etc.) The unit is specialized on applied colloid and surface chemistry and has vast experience of formulation development and characterization of colloidal suspensions for various industries. RISE Bioscience and Materials is currently involved in several European projects and has the coordination role for 5 EU projects funded by FP7 where several types innovative products are being developed for their use in commercial products. RISE Bioscience and Materials has been active the area of water remediation, notably in the PHOTOCAT project funded by Vinnova. In this project, a new type of photo-catalytic membrane has been manufactured. The effect of natural organic particles in waste water on the degradation of pharmaceutical residues was studied at the test facility at Hammarby Sjöstadsverket in Stockholm. In another Vinnova project, MagBeW RISE Bioscience and Materials is developing functionalized magnetic beads together with Chalmers Institute of Technology for collecting critical metal ions from various bath processes used at Volvo facilities. Ernstsson is a senior scientist and expert in advanced surface chemical analyses, Sugunan is a scientist and expert in nanotechnology and electronics, Swerin is an expert in the area of liquid wetting, spreading and liquid penetration; flow in porous media; functional coatings and materials; Scale-up, prototyping and demonstrators. RISE Bioscience and Materials will contribute in functionalization of the porous supports and attachment of various functional coatings for different applications and in the surface characterization of the tested filter materials.
All activities at IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute are linked to six major theme areas: climate and energy, sustainable building, air and transport, sustainable production, resource-efficient products and waste, and water, all relevant for the Mistra TerraClean program. IVL operates commercial-scale pilot test facilities, such as the R&D facility Hammarby Sjöstadsverk which is a platform for development and exchange of knowledge and technologies in water treatment and related environmental technology and forms the basis for Sweden Water Innovation Centre - SWIC. It is Sweden's leading and internationally known R&D facility in water purification technology. The facility contributes through research and demonstration to a profiling Swedish know-how related to water/environmental technology and thus enhances professional development worldwide. It promotes multidisciplinary cooperation with companies, experts/researchers and municipal sewage works to meet future challenges in the water and wastewater sector and to increase the export of Swedish knowledge and technology. The facility is owned and operated by a consortium led KTH and IVL. It is used for long-term national and international research programs/projects and consultancy, testing and development for the industry and other partners. Moreover, IVL is part of the EUROSTAR funded research project "AeroFilter - Filters for selective cleaning of air" (Reference: 10155/14/Q) coordinated by Svenska Aerogel where IVL has developed a test rig to evaluate the adsorptive capacity chemicals of multiple filters simultaneously. In addition to the two facilities for testing the filters performance in air and water environment, IVL has a well-equipped laboratory with stage-of-the-art analytical instruments such liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), gas chromatography mass spectrometry, Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), high resolution LC-MS (Orbitrap) etc. Both the R&D facility at Sjöstadsverket and the test rig for air filters are provided with sensors for online monitoring of the results. IVL is among the leading institutes in Europe in the area of Life Cycle assessment, with about 20 staff members highly skilled in the methodology. IVL has carried out LCA work in numerous EU funded R&D projects relating to e.g. water treatment technologies, such as Innowatech and E4Water. IVL has also played key roles in EU projects on LCA method development, such a CALCAS, EmInInn and STYLE.
SwedNanoTech is the national association for nanotechnology, connecting academia and industry with the association's extensive national and international network. Most of the consortium partners are members of SwedNanoTech. Hartmanis has a long experience of bridging the science-to-society gap with communication and dialogue, process evaluation and project management. SwedNanoTech is furthermore well connected to international technology platforms like Nanora and NanoFutures and European research institutes (TNO, INL, CCAN, etc.), where these issues are discussed.