The overarching aim in WP3 – application platform, is to use four specific cases within water purification/ air purification to drive the research and development within this program towards real world problems. This approach can bridge the multidisciplinary task of water and air purification by focusing the interest of all the involved organizations towards those four chosen and concrete case studies.

Involved partners: IVL, Boliden , Vattenfall, Svenskt Vatten, MoRe
WP Leader: IVL (Nordström) WP Co-leader: RISE (Granberg)

In the first year of the programme, focus has been on four areas:
Case A – Flue Gas Liquids and Heavy Metals
Case B – NOx SOx VOC Dioxins
Case C – Mining Effluents
Case D – PFAS and Drinking Water

In Case A, real flue gas condensate from the acid stage, wastewater tank and condensate stage have been run through WP1 concept apparatuses and analyses for heavy metals are in progress presently. Once all samples are characterized, we can calculate the energy input to give estimates on volumetric capacity and energy requirements for the process with a potentiality to remove hazardous heavy metals. Similar tests have been done for Case D. The challenge we are focusing on is if PFAS can be reduced from levels 700 ng/l to acceptable levels (less than 90 ng/l). New tests are to be performed and further details will evolve during next year.

Clearing gases from harmful levels of contaminants is one topic in WP3. The NOx case has been studied in Case B, simulating car tunnels with levels of 2 ppm that have been neutralized in initial trials using concepts created in WP2. Additional promising results of higher levels have been tested (up to toxic 30 ppm levels). The harmful levels have been beneficially diminished to acceptable levels. Long-run verification trials are to be made to further verify the good results.

The consortium partner representing the mining industry has provided us with samples of mining effluents. We have succeeded to screen the samples for all involved organic and nonorganic ingredients. In addition to characterizing mining waters thoroughly, it has turned out some filter materials evaluated initially can really catch some materials that (e.g. determining REE – Rare Earth Elements) in the mining waters that are not detected in conventional methods.

A lot of new ideas have emerged during this productive year. The case studies will continue in the iteration processes with WP1 and WP2, where we anticipate testing the functionalized materials for further implementation into industrial applications.


LCA and LCC are important tools in evaluating new materials. Both methods have already been taken into consideration in this stage. and will be deepened when we find a potential full-scale application to be run the next coming years in the program. Co-operation with WP4 has been very fruitful and deep discussions are already now prevailing in where the aim should be put to gain a sustainable future.